According to the British Medical Acupuncture Society, myofascial pain syndrome results from the development of myofascial trigger points. A myofascial trigger point is a hyperirritable locus within a taut band of skeletal muscle or its associated fascia. It is painful on compression and can evoke a characteristic referral pattern of pain or autonomic dysfunction.
Various therapeutic techniques have been proposed to treat trigger points and associated myofascial pain syndrome. Nonpharmacological approaches, such as dry needling, are now more widely used and generally preferred over pharmacological ones as they are generally better tolerated and have safer adverse event profiles.